8/28/2016

Tomtoy Year Established: 2005

We have over 1,000 LED products and add more each week.
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Things To Know Before Purchasing Fashion Jewelry Online

As compared to traditional window shopping, online shopping has gained better popularity and importance these days. As most of us know, this is mainly because of the convenience associated. A few years ago, internet purchases were done for only specific types of goods, but nowadays, a wide range of goods are purchased online, which includes Replica Hermes Jewelry Online Store as well. It is the best option for saving as well as compared to conventional brick and mortar purchases.
Nowadays, this trend of shopping is appreciated and accepted by people from different age groups as compared to crowded physical store purchases. So, nothing makes people to hesitate when this method provides them the opportunity to save not only money and time, but also the effort to be put for procuring their desired product. With the increasing number of women choosing this method, many internet-based ornamental shops are available. So, shopping of jewellery online is turning out to be the latest trend attracting many women. Not only women, but also men looking to purchase the best gift items for their lovable women are turning to these shops. Here are some points to know, when you are planning to choose a jewellery shop online:
Generally, when you compare the cost of ornaments sold in internet-based stores with that of those sold in physical stores, you will find that the former is cheaper. This is why cheap pendants online has become true these days. They are able to sell at this cost not because they are selling low quality items, but because of the fact that they do not have to invest in showrooms that are fully lighted for providing an attractive appearance to invite more and more people. All that is to be done by them is to create a well-designed website and should hand it over to a good hosting company. The savings they are able to make on the overhead costs is passed to their customers.
When looking for cheap pendants online, make sure that the site you are selecting is ensuring round the clock customer support. This will be helpful for you to get your doubts clarified, not only before placing your order, but also after receiving your goods.
Also, the shop selling jewellery online should have a wide collection of items under different categories like earrings, bracelets, pendants, brooches, etc.….. This will be helpful for you to compare many of them and you can find the best that will be suitable for your requirement.  http://www.royaljewelries.com/replica-hermes-jewelry/hermes-bracelets.html

Why Buy Kundan Jewellery Online?

With a range of jewellery traditions and designs, India has a lot to offer to the accessories market. Luckily for the fans, Replica Hermes Jewelry Online Store trends from India are not restricted to Indian buyers only. The advent of e-commerce sector has made some exquisite forms of jewellery accessible to the global buyers. For those who like to be trend setters, Kundan is the most sorted of the varieties.
Kundan necklaceJewellery made of Kundan is not made of real solid gold. In fact, its centre is finished with lac, which is made from a hard tree's sap. Not many know how the entire piece comes together. To make a finished Kundan necklace, various jewellers or their assistants help in formulating its shape before fitting them together during soldering.
Their next step is to bore holes into these different halves in order to give a patterned design by the designer. Later, the holes carved in to these halves are to be studded by stones. But since, the holes showcase the lac, jewellers pour in some highly refined Kundan gold in it. When this process takes place, the jeweller pushes the stone right in to the pliable Kundan.
Another fact that people may not know of Kundan jewellery is that it is one of the oldest forms of jewellery. Earlier, jewellery was studded with precious stones and made of gold. The kind of setting used by craftsmen in those days was known as claw settings. This setting was not used until the nineteenth century. They were introduced and then used by jewellers in Rajasthan. They were paid handsomely by kings for the exquisite Kundan jewellery for their excellent craftsmanship.
kundan earringsThese days the designs that people come across are a mix of antiquity and modern influences. Collections featuring a blend of these ideas are sold by several reputed online retailers at competitive rates. The sale of Kundan earrings, neck pieces, and more is an evidence of an interest in the traditional jewellery designs of India. Also, investment in jewellery selling online platforms has helped owners of e-commerce ventures gain sizeable profits from their buyers.
But e-commerce platforms have not just benefitted their owners. They have proved to be advantageous for the buyers as well. Here are a few reasons why purchasing Kundan jewellery online is a good idea: -
An individual buyer can come across a wide array of options to choose from through an online platform.
Second, people get to compare all the designs and choose the product of their liking.
Regular discounts are one of their salient features. This helps buyers purchase their Kundan sets at cost-effective rates.
Since the platform is visible to global buyers, therefore, people can purchase products from anywhere at any time.
With delivery of products on time, online platforms are a favoured option as compared to stores.
With benefits like these, online stores have become a convenient option for buyers today. Besides Kundan jewellery, people can look for other options in jewellery to purchase online. Therefore, buyers are advised to sift through internet deals and consider their purchase options carefully to gain maximum satisfaction.  http://www.royaljewelries.com/replica-cartier-jewelry.html

How Silver Jewellery From Online Shopping Store Setting A Trend

Online jewellery shopping India is one of the most intriguing pursuits anyone can do especially when the budget allows. Silver is quite famous among chic accessory hunters, not to mention it is a top pick of people who dress up for elegance. It has established great prominence over other kinds of adornment in the market and has developed a reputation of stylishness and grace, something that most women go for.
Shopping for silver embellishments can be tricky, considering many imitative items exist in the market today. There are many customers who cannot distinguish between authentic silver and imitation. There are galore people who wonder why their apparently true silver charms lose their shine and become dull after some time. Generally, people who do not go to trustworthy sellers face this problem, which is evitable after all with experience and judgment.
Before opting for silver jewellery online shopping customers should check that there are no observable blemishes on the silver embellishment before buying it. Do not make your choice in hurry or impulse because this type of shopping approach makes you vulnerable to committing mistakes or, ending up with a fake item. Thus, spend a good time examining the silver accessory on your skin to check if it looks good and if it fits your personality and attire.
Cautious examination of silver adornment ensures you get the right product for the money you pay. Examine the jewellery precisely and avoid impulsive buying because this will increase your chances of getting the wrong items. Thus, lay the accessory on a flat surface separately and then inspect the whole piece closely. However, one cannot do such careful scrutiny if they are shopping from online store. The good news for the buyers is that a reputable online silver jewellery store makes it sure that you are seeing blemish-free and sterling items. And the choice of returning the deficient embellishment is always provided. Dealers should not be trusted before reading the return policies.
Silver adornments normally have the 925 or SS mark. This is an evidence that the jewellery piece you are purchasing is approximately 92.5% pure. Low-class and imitative silver items contain much less silver. Bogus silver accessories may also be made of metal alloys that are very cleverly plated with silver and these are awful pieces that look fake after some time. Embellishments having low silver content do not share the same brilliancy as the sterling ones. These are also easily affected by sweat or moisture.
To attract the majority of customers, these online shopping stores in India offer a wide array of earrings, bracelet and silver bangles for girls. These tremendous designs compel the customers to return to the respective e-shopping stores repetitively. Before the advent of internet women used to wear only traditional jewelry designs but today, they are shifting towards more versatile options. The elegantly designed adornmentshave created a buzz among women of all ages. While young girls flaunt silver bangles and dangling earrings; elderly ladies embellish themselves with classy earrings and bracelets.
There are so many VAN CLEEF & ARPELS JEWELRY shopping stores floating in the internet market, this offers sufficient choices to the buyers. There is no more necessity of visiting any designer boutiques or shopping malls, just log on to your preferred e-shopping website and buy silver accessories online. These Indian online shopping sites have now successfully bridged the gap between sellers and customers.  Click HERE for more information on the Van Cleef & Arpels Jewelry

Best Jewelry Online Site You Will Find

Use of jewelry not only completes your elegant look but also adds effulgence to your apparel and heightens your caliber. Ask any beauty expert and they will attest to it that selecting appropriate apparel then embellishing oneself with a set of jewelry gives one a refined look coupled with the magical feeling of self-confidence. Regardless of ages, putting on a jewel will always make you stand out in any crowd.
The choice of jewelry and where to find them is a query that nags many people. The truth is your worries are couples of inches shorter if you want to buy artificial jewellery online India because Van Cleef & Arpels Jewelry has every answer to your questions. Online shopping is the most recent and convenient way of purchasing assorted items and this website has greatly invested in every aspect to make your search for jewelry very easy.
Jackjewels gives your money the value it deserves by providing high quality, durable and greatly affordable jewelry. The online site displays the actual items that you will find anytime you visit their shop. This will definitely make your online artificial jewellery shopping an amazing real-time adventure. The stock warehouse is food for your eyes in terms of satisfaction because every type of bracelet, necklace, mangal sutra or earrings just to name a few is well displayed for purchase at magical prices.
Embarking to buy artificial jewellery online India through jackjewels is a deal you cannot turn down. Look at it this way: you instantly click on the website, make your choice of jewelry you intend to purchase from the countless number of classical, oriental and occidental embroidery, give your location details plus your physical address and wait for delivery. Your item is bound to reach your destination within a short while. The shipping is completely free of charge and as if that's not enough, you will pay for the item once it's delivered, not beforehand. This gives you 100% assurance of getting the ordered item.
Jackjewels continues to make your life easier even when it comes to tracking your order. So often has it happened that a buyer purchases an item online, having paid all the amount then goes through the pain of tracking the order by making very expensive calls or writing countless emails that take years to get a feedback. This hassle is nowhere close to jackjewels. Here, you will track your order by dialing a toll-free number available in their website. The customer services are excellent because all your needs are tended to by a perfect team of experts.
Jackjewels is the place to take all your concerns about jewellery. Their refund, return and privacy policies are followed to the letter. Dealing with them is an all-secure process that will put regrets miles away from you. Did I forget their social networking? Well, their pages are available in nearly every social network such as Facebook, twitter, pinterest, you name them. These provide a good platform to interact with different teams and even get the latest updates of jewelry stocked in their warehouses. Following any of their pages is a chance not to let slip between your fingers.  More information on this technology can be found HERE!

Shopping for Jewelry Online

Women have been adorning jewelry since time immemorial. It is a very big part of who they are. Trends change; styles change, beliefs and values change but there are some things that will always remain constant. Women who are conscious of their sense of style and fashion will always love and adorn their jewelry. It is a very big part of them. You must have probably heard people saying that diamonds are the key to a woman's heart. This is general saying that alludes to the importance that women attach to their Van Cleef & Arpels Jewelry.
Jewelry shopping is thus something that women will never tired of doing. They can never really own enough jewelry and they will always be ready and willing to buy some more. You see women wear these pieces on a daily basis. They cannot be seen wearing the same piece over and over again and this is why they constantly need to shop for new styles and designs out there in the market.
The good news for these women is that jewelry shopping has been made easier in the world of today. The coming of the internet has brought with it a large number of goodies and among them is the numerous jewelry stores that are available online. These stores pride themselves in stocking the best of designs and styles that are available in the market at very affordable prices. The stores have a very huge reach as they can easily tap into the world market from their online platform. This allows them to easily collect all what is available all over the world and place it on a single platform. That being said, in the event that you are looking for something new that has not already flooded the market, it would be good for you to try these online stores. They are great places to buy artificial necklaces online.
If you are a lover of Indian jewelry, you should definitely trawl the internet. You will be shocked and amazed at the many Indian jewelry stores that are available. These stores stock a very huge variety and they will have everything that you need from the bangles to the rings to the pendants to the necklaces to the mangalsutras. There is no denying that they are a solid stop for someone looking to buy artificial mangalsutra online. They charge very affordable prices for their products and they can very easily ship the product to where you are situated.
A good number of these stores are owned and operated in India itself. This is your guarantee that the pieces that you will be buying form them will be original and authentically Indian. The quality is also something to write home about and you can be sure that you will not be disappointed. Just make sure that you do conduct your background check on the store that you choose to buy form. Engage with stores with secure payment methods and read through reviews online and get to see people's experiences before you deal with a certain store, click HERE

Have Fun As You Shop for Fashion Jewelry Online

There are many people who are hesitant to purchase jewelry items online. They have several questions which make them hesitant about choosing to shop from an online store. However, all kinds of hesitation can be put aside and one can have more fun shopping at the online stores than when they step into an outlet in a mall or a store. Here are some reasons why shopping for fashion jewelry online can be fun.
More choices
The main reason that stands to offer advantages over offline stores is the availability of several items in the online catalogs. There are several items which can be browsed in different categories, from earrings, necklaces, bracelets, anklets, rings and many more. There are thousands to be viewed in each category, making your choices much more, either in mens Replica Hermes Jewelry or womens jewelry.
Discounts and sales
There are many online stores that offer special discount deals from time to time. Hence, you will find the prices to be cheaper as compared to the prices offered in the offline stores. Most fashion jewelry stores online has different kinds of sales and discount schemes that are offered from time to time. If you wish to purchase with a discount, you can look up coupon sites. Here you will find lists of coupons that list out discounts at the different fashion jewelry stores online.
Gift purchases
If it is your friend's birthday that stays away, why not opt to choose a fashion jewelry item and get it shipped to the friend's address? You could shop for mens jewelry as well and surprise your special man by sending him a surprise gift. If he wears what you gift him, it would surely be special for you as well as for him.
Gifts for yourself
If you feel like gifting yourself a special fashion accessory, you need not wait for a special occasion. The womens jewelry items are sold at reasonable prices at most online retail stores. As a result, you can opt to purchase any such item at any point in time. You will surely feel special when you flaunt a new earring in office and get compliments from others.
Returns and refunds
Many people often worry that they will not like the item they purchase at an online store. This might occur or the fit might not be right. In these cases the accessory items can be easily returned and refund obtained. Most fashion retail stores offer easy exchange, return or refund policies. For that reason the customers need not worry when shopping online. They can easily opt for any item they want and get it exchanged, returned or refund obtained in case the item is damaged, the fit is incorrect or the item is not what one thought it to be. These are some of the points to consider in favor of shopping for fashion jewelry items online. With several online stores one can opt for new designs and trends and even shop for international brands from other countries. via

Top 4 Tips to buy Gold Jewellery online for Kids

Jewellery shopping online has become a trend, but the same trend can be applied on kids as well?? Specially, buying Gold Jewellery Online for Kids should be done carefully as they have sensitive skin and only real gold and silver metals can be compatible on their skin. Gold or Silver plated Replica Hermes Jewelry Online Store will be in no match and it will produce some rashes on their skin. Jewellery must neither be very tight for comfort nor too loose. Normally, jewellery is gifted to kids most of the times for baby showers or for baby naming ceremonies. Read on to know more about buying jewellery for babies.
Gold Jewellery can be bought from the early stage itself but buying online can be a teething task. But, it can be bought from the renowned retailers who have introduced the collection for kids. buying Gold Jewellery online for kids is done when they are babies and as they grow, the parents start buying for them for special occasions. Buying jewellery can be a cumbersome job for parents but if they know the ground rules and few tips, then it becomes an easier task. They are fondly treasured as keepsakes for the parents as the baby grows up. Some of the tips are below:
Important to buy Hypoallergenic Jewellery
It is very important for the parents to buy hypoallergenic jewellery so that it will ensure the child's hyper sensitive and delicate skin is protected. The metal should be affected with sunlight, water or anything. It is such a relief that all the jewellery players have taken care of the material and its properties in their hands. Not even kids but even the grown-ups also face with the wrong metal reactions. Before buying, all the products should be carefully scrutinized and ensured for the child's safety.
Buying Wrist Jewellery
The easiest and popular choice for kids are the bracelets, bangles or kadas as these does not involve piercing or any sort of pain to the kids. Bracelets look beautiful and it completes the look for any occasion, even if they don't wear earrings. But, bracelets can be come in disadvantage as well. The size of the bracelet matters to the wrist of the child and as the child grows, it becomes of no use than to give it to someone else or to be kept for the future purpose. Either way, there is nothing wrong in that, but what to do?? If the bracelet piece is one of a kind and is a favorite to your child? Therefore, it is recommended that the bracelets should be bought one or two size bigger, so that the child can wear them as long as they want.
Waistbands for Kids
Kamar dhanis or cute waistbands are another interesting kids jewellery option. Made of silver or gold, they are tied around the waist of the baby. Baby neckpieces in gold, silver or the beaded ones are also quite popular. Colourful meenakari work on chains; look great around those tiny necks. These designs give an impression of precious stones and are a great substitute for gems. Coloured beads can also brighten up an ordinary chain.
Precautions on Necklaces
Necklaces are good for school-age children, but many styles should be avoided on babies and young children because they may pose a choking hazard. Gold chains with pretty or fun pendants are great for older children
Precautions while buying for ceremonies
Gifting of gold is considered to be quite auspicious on important ceremonies like christening or poojas. People invest in gold jewellery as it comprehends great sentimental values and memories of certain occasion. But one has to be very careful before buying gold jewellery on great occasions. One has to consider the comfort of the child and shop for light weight and plain gold jewellery. Gifting gold chains and gold kadas are in trend, so choose wisely. http://www.royaljewelries.com/

8/25/2016

Why Women Are Gravitating Towards Stainless Steel Jewelry

Women in general love jewelry, and cannot have enough if it. Be it gold, silver, platinum, women just like hoarding exquisite pieces of jewels, but more often than not, it does burn a very big hole in the pocket which takes months and months to re-instate. Stainless steel jewelry is really inexpensive and these days it is available in plenty of designs, which can be chunky or subtle whatever be your style. A number of stores sell stainless steel jewelry and they also are available online.
The main advantages of buying stainless steel jewelry for women online have been mentioned below:
By now most women are spoilt for choices, as there is an array and variety of almost everything. So when you visit an online store which sells stainless steel jewelry for women, you will definitely find a lot of designs which will catch your fancy. Most designs look really classy and will suit Van Cleef & Arpels Jewelry most women and their personalities.
You are bound to find something for all age groups, so from trinkets to studs, to charm bracelets to beautiful rings, there is something for everyone.
You could also purchase something for the man in your life, while you buy jewelry for yourself. For example stainless steel cufflinksare really popular with men, so you could gift him one.
Affordability is the best thing when buying stainless steel jewelry online. Throughout the year you are bound to find deals and discounts which will help you in saving money. For example, for him and her, gift set comprising of stainless steel cufflinks and earrings, may be on offer so you could buy something for yourself and your special someone.
The style factor, when you see jewelry online, you get to see what it has been paired with, and you get a lot of ideas about styling it in future.
There are many advantages of buying jewelry made of stainless steel. First of all, as mentioned above it is extremely Replica Hermes Jewelry Online Store pocket-friendly, so you can hoard as many pieces of jewelry as you want to. The next thing is the fact that it is extremely durable and long lasting plus it can last for a very long time without being tarnished. The fact that it has a silvery-grey hue makes it a perfect color for both men and women. Unlike gold jewelry, it does not cry out for attention, similarly it is not unnoticeable as well.
Be smart and buy fewer things first and once you are aware of the quality, and you like it you can go ahead and purchase more. In case you are making your purchase online, do not forget to read the product description and returns policy, so that you are well aware of the transaction along with its clauses. Just a slight warning, stainless steel is an alloy of different kinds of metals which you might cause you allergies, so be sure check out your retention to the metal before going on a hoarding spree. More information on this Van Cleef & Arpels Jewelry can be found  HERE!

Jewelry Gifts For Girlfriend Is Not Too Hard To Find

Jewelry has and always will be one of the most viable gifting options when it comes to treating your loved ones. Gifting a piece of jewelry to your friend or loved one shows how much thought and efforts you have put into making that person feel special. However buying jewelry doesn't need to be confusing at all. All you need is to narrow down your options and go for the most pocket-friendly piece. If you are searching for jewelry gifts for girlfriend, then think about the designs and colors she is fond of before making a purchase.
Religious jewelry is all the rage
Nowadays religious and spiritual jewelry is gaining a lot of popularity as well. Evil eye jewelry is one such category of spiritual jewelry that is gaining a lot of praise and popularity. Jewelry pertaining to this category is fashioned in a delicate manner. Such jewelry is characterized by delicate metal chains with a beautiful pendant. Several cultures believe in the healing and protective properties of such jewelry. These pieces of jewelry not only complement your attire but also protect and enrich your aura.
Jewelry can lighten up any occasion
Jewelry is something that can instantly light up the mood of your loved ones. If you are looking for a fun way to surprise your girlfriend then jewelry gifts for girlfriend is the best way to achieve that. Make sure you buy something that she will be comfortable sporting. There is a whole world of options that awaits you when feminine jewelry is what you are after.
Check The Details
When you know a little about Replica Hermes Jewelry Online Store you can check the details about the product to ensure that you get the best.The quality of the metal, its width, its shine and luster all must be considered and checked. The design of the ring, the stone used must be according to your choice and preference. The most important thing to check is the grip of the stone, if any, so that it will not fall off easily. So, it is best to give considerable amount of time when you buy your jewelry.
Points To Remember
When you are buying a necklace then also you must keep some things in mind. The type of neckline your dress has, the structure of your neck, all must suit the necklace that you wear. So, choose your necklace from the Best Fashion Necklace Jewelry to get a wide variety of necklaces. It can be a single or multi-stranded, long or short, with or without pendants, symmetrical or abstract. So, choose the right one to look attractive.
For more information about jewelry gifts for girlfriend, Evil eye jewelry, please visit the royaljewelries

How To Shop For A Fashion Jewelry Online

Many people are still hesitant about shopping for fashion jewelry items online. Today, even precious metals and stone adorned jewelry are found at online stores. With most reputed jewelry brands offering their wares online, it reflects a growing dependability of the online purchase system. Here is a guide on how to stay safe for your online purchases and to make a successful purchase of jewelry items online.
Find Reputed Stores
In order to rely on an online jewelry store, it is necessary to know the reliability of the store. For that reason, you can look up the ratings and reviews for a given store or find a known jewelry brand that has an online presence. Nowadays, most jewelry brands offer their wares online which makes it easy to make a choice. You could opt for a local brand that you know and rely upon.
A Lot Of Choices
The main advantage of shopping for fashion jewelry is the availability of a large range of items to choose from. From gold based items to fashion jewelry items, most stores showcase a wider range of items than what is found in the retail showrooms. You will also have more choices as per your budget range at an online jewelry store.
Making The Right Choice
It is necessary to check the hallmark of the items purchased, in case you opt for precious gold and other jewelry items. Again, the fashion jewelry items are usually made of sterling silver or other alloys. A reputed brand will offer quality items which would be long lasting, even in the category of fashion jewelry. Hence, you simply need to check the product details before ascertaining whether the value associated with a product is reasonable or beyond your budget.
Pros And Cons Of Purchasing Jewelry Online
The online jewelry is easily purchased when you browse the different outlets and sections, find the item you want and add it to the shopping cart for checkout. However, there are certain points that add limitations to online purchases in this category. Jewelry items that are size dependent need to be purchased carefully, with a guide and a reference chart to ascertain the right size of items like bracelets or bangles as well as rings. However, it is possible to return and get another size if the item you purchased was a wrong fit. Again, it might not be possible to make out the final look of an item through the image gallery. Many items and their finishes look different in real life from what they appear in an image gallery. One should also check the terms and conditions and ascertain that the right warranty coverage is provided with the item on its purchase. The items are delivered to one's address in a time span of five days or more, depending on the location of the seller and the buyer. These are some points to keep in mind so that online jewelry purchase is lucrative and beneficial.

Jewelry and gemstone jewellery

Jewellery or jewelry consists of of small household goods used for personal equipment, such as brooches, jewelry, necklaces, ear-rings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the apparel, and the word is restricted to long lasting designs, eliminating flowers for example. For many 100's of years metal, often along with jewelry, has been the standard material for jewellery, but many other elements such as shells and other place elements may be used. It is one of the initial type of traditional artefact – with 100,000-year-old pellets made from Nassarius shells thought to be the initial known Replica Cartier Jewelry.

Van Cleef & Arpels Flying Butterfly Pendant,Pink Gold,White Mother-Of-Pearl
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Van Cleef & Arpels Flying Butterfly Pendant,Pink Gold,White Mother-of-pearl
Van Cleef & Arpels has always been captivated by butterflies, striving to capture the beauty of nature in perpetual movement and renewal.

The basic kinds of jewellery differ between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most regular kinds of jewellery detailed above have ongoing since the past, while other kinds such as components for the nose or foot, important in other cultures, are much more uncommon. Generally, the best impact on jewellery in terms of style and design have come from Asia.
The word jewelry itself comes from from the word useful stone, which was anglicized from the Old Italy "jouel", and beyond that, to the Latina phrase "jocale", significance toy. In English British, Regional local native indian local English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Modern sydney English, and South east African-american English it is written jewelry, while the punctuation is jewelry in The united declares English.[1] Both are used in Canada and america and america English, though Replica Hermes Jewelry recommendations by a two to one advantage. In Italy and a few other European 'languages' very same phrase, joaillerie there, may also cover designed metalwork in jewelry such as objets d'art and church items, not just things used on the person.
Most cultures at some point have had a work out to keep huge quantities of success kept in the way of jewelry. Several cultures store wedding dowries in the way of jewelry or make jewelry as a way to store or show money. On the other hand, jewelry has been used as a forex or business good; an example being the use of slave pellets.[citation needed]
Many items of jewelry, such as brooches and buckles, was originally simply effective items, but become household goods as their effective need decreased.[5]
Jewellery can also symbolise team consideration (as in the scenario, of the Spiritual crucifix or the Judaism Superstar of David) or place (as in the scenario of shops of office, or the Western work out of partners dressed in wedding rings).
Wearing of amulets and devotional prizes to protect you or keep off evil is typical in some cultures. These may take the way of symptoms (such as the ankh), stones, vegetation, animals, areas of the body (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as eye-catching versions of the Throne Line in Islamic art).
To know more...http://www.royaljewelries.com/

8/17/2016

Oxygen Analyzer- The Most Vital Element to Human Health

Bhoomi Analyzers with wide analytical instruments product range, forms an integral part of process automation in process industries. Our dedication has made us the pioneers in this field. Our in house research and development has enabled us to enhance the product quality and reliability remarkably.

XGF-404 CEMS smoke emission process analysis system

XGF-404 CEMS smoke emission process analysis system.jpg
Introduction
XGF-404 series CEMS smoke emission process analysis system is in accordance with national environmental requirements for power plant boilers or similar conditions in the flue gas continuous emission of gaseous substances, dust , flow rate, pressure and other parameters for continuous detection of multi-functional system for environmental protection department smoke emissions achieve effective control of the quantization . The core of the system is usually by the following relatively independent parts. Flue gas composition (SO2, NOx, CO, O2 , etc. ) continuous monitoring system , the dust concentration detection systems , flue gas flow and pressure monitoring systems, data acquisition and processing system (DAS), other additional measurement parameters.

Oxygen is the most vital element for the human body. So why is it then, the one element of our health that we all take for granted. The answer is simple- while we are breathing one breath after another, we just presume that we are getting enough of it! The truth is though, that this is not the case. 200 years ago the quality of the air was much higher with an oxygen quantity of 30%. Today though, as a result of global pollution and the depletion of our natural resources the air only contains 19% oxygen and in some cities as low as 10% oxygen.
Oxygen in the blood stream nourishes the body's cells, creates energy and helps break down waste products and toxins. It creates immune system defense and it regulates the body's pH balance. Oxygen plays a crucial role in the fight against disease. It has been proven that diseases such as Cancerthrive in an acid pH, so it is imperative that we oxygenate our bodies and maintain an Alkaline pH if we wish to maintain our health and wellness.
Oxygen in the body is necessary for all vital functions and the elimination of waste products. Oxygen gives our bodies the fighting power to resist pathogens, bacteria and viruses.
It is a proven fact that oxygen deficiency eventually leads to disease or illness of some form. "Insufficient oxygen means insufficient biological energy that can result in anything from mild fatigue to life threatening disease" as quoted by Dr W Spencer Way- who wrote in the Journal of the American Association of Physicians.
There are many factors that cause Oxygen Deficiency. Some of these are : Overcooking our food which kills the enzymes, Breathing carbon monoxide fumes which strips oxygen from the blood, Eating processed foods that have little or no oxygen content and are full of chemicals, Drinking tap water with chemical additives such as flouride, De-forestation, Alcohol and Lack of exercise.
It is a proven fact that diseases such as cancer and AIDS, herpes and hepatitis, cannot tolerate high oxygen cells in the blood stream. This alone is reason enough to make a conscious effort to ensure you are oxygenating the blood. If you feel that factors of your environment could be depleting the oxygen supply to your bloodstream, be sure to take a daily oxygen supplement to help counteract these factors.
BHOOMI make analyzers installed at most of the sites are trouble free and have proven long life. Many Industries have shown confidence in us by placing REPETITIVE ORDERS. We are committed to our clients and provide the best after sale services.
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Industrial Accessories Company Provides Compliment of Air Pollution Control Equipment to Newest U.S. Cement Plant

Drake Cement, LLC in Drake , Arizona , USA , is the Southwest's newest cement company, with full-scale operations underway. Located at the site of an old rail town in northwestern Arizona , Drake is 115 miles north of the city of Phoenix , Arizona , and 220 miles southwest of Las Vegas , Nevada . The Drake Cement facility is the first of its kind to be built in the state in over 50 years.

About Drake Cement

Drake Cement focuses exclusively on the production of Type II/V (LA) Portland cement, conforming to the physical and chemical requirements of ASTM C-150 for Types I, II, and V, low alkali cements, as well as ASTM C 1157 for Types GU, MS, and HS cements.
The plant includes a state-of-the-art, six stage precalciner/preheater kiln with a rated capacity of 660,000 tons of clinker per year or 2,000 tons per day. Medium to high volatile western coal is used as a primary fuel and gas for kiln start up. Most of the raw materials will be obtained from an adjoining quarry and the remainder will be imported, primarily from Arizona .
Several operating and pollution controls incorporated into the plant are so advanced that they are found in only a few other facilities throughout the world.
The Drake Cement kiln/raw mill system must conform to very stringent emission limits. To achieve the very strict NOx emission limit, the kiln line includes a low NOx burner, a six stage preheater with low fuel consumption and a low NOx calciner working in combination with the Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system for NOx reduction. Low sulfur coal and raw material is used in addition to the gas scrubbing effect of the raw mill to satisfy the SO2 threshold
Drake Cement and their project manager, ARPL Tecnologia Industrial S.A., awarded Industrial Accessories Company (IAC), Mission , Kansas , USA , the order for the baghouses for the project. Subsequently, IAC was also awarded the supply of the air-to-air heat exchanger, stacks, access stair towers, and structural support steel for the dust collection equipment.

About Industrial Accessories Company

IAC is an industrial design/build and original equipment manufacturer of baghouses, flue gas desulfurization, heavy metal mitigating sorbent injection systems, dry bulk materials handling, and pneumatic conveying systems.
IAC also provides replacement and new components for baghouses and bulk material handling systems as well as complete engineered systems for their customers.
IAC Provides 34 Baghouses, an Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger, Stacks and Custom Steel Fabrication to Drake Cement
IAC provided three process filters for the plant. An IAC M-Pulse long bag filter controlled emissions from the raw mill and kiln. Another controlled emissions from the clinker cooler after first being cooled via an IAC provided air-to-air heat exchanger. The coal grinding system was provided with a filter designed to withstand high internal pressures.
IAC supplied 31 nuisance and dust handling filters for the Drake project. These included four at the primary crusher and the three overland conveyors stretching 3500 ft. from the quarry to the plant. Three more were provided at the limestone covered storage and conveyor transfers to the raw material silos. Six more were installed to control dust from rail and truck receiving and during transport to storage as well as to raw material grinding. Three more were provided atop the blending silo, feed to the preheater and atop the preheater tower. Five provided dust control for clinker transport and two for transport of coal to coal grinding. Seven provided dust control for cement grinding, the cement silo filling and for loadout allowing two trucks and one railcar to be loaded simultaneously.
IAC also provided four de-dusting cyclones for primary collection from the raw meal grinding. During the course of the project, IAC provided over 1000 tons of steel in the form of stacks, access stair towers, and structural supports for the filters, cyclones, ductwork and stacks.

Raw Mill / Kiln Baghouse

A raw meal grinding system with an output of 164 ton/hr utilizes the hot gases from the six stage preheater of the kiln.
IAC provided a six module CEMS for this service. The M-Pulse filter has a penthouse enclosure providing weather protection and an electric overhead hoist to aid in lifting the insulated clean air plenum doors to access bags during maintenance. Its long bag design (7 meter) reduced the equipment footprint and capital investment for Drake. The baghouse contains PTFE coated fiberglass filter media for the 250oC service.
Steep pyramidal hopper design for each module aids material flow and simplifies material collection. Low 50 psi pressure pulse cleaning provides gentle bag cleaning action promoting longer bag life. Unique inlet gas baffle plate design aids in particle collection before filter media is encountered and in gas flow distribution in each module.

Clinker Cooler Baghouse

A clinker cooler with air beam technology is employed for the 2000 ton/day production rate. IAC provided a four module M-Pulse baghouse here with 6 meter PTFE coated Nomex bags for the 200 oC service.
IAC provided the baghouse's steel supporting framework and stack for this filter.

Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger

The gases leaving the cooler, traveling to the clinker cooler baghouse first pass through anair-to-air heat exchanger provided by IAC.
The Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger reduces the temperature of the clinker cooler gas venting to the dust collection system, thereby lowering the gas volume to be handled and baghouse fan horsepower requirements.
During upsets, the air-to-air heat exchanger aids to protect the downstream equipment so that it stays within design temperature limits.
The dust that drops out of the gas stream passing through the air-to-air heat exchanger is collected in a bottom hopper and transported out by a screw conveyor. At the discharge of the screw conveyor, a rotary valve minimizes false air intake before passing the dust to the subsequent conveying system.

Coal Mill Baghouse

Coal is pulverized by a vertical mill with a capacity of 14 tons per hour. The mill includes an IAC pulse-jet filter equipped with explosion relief panels. The baghouse is a "walk-in" plenum design reinforced and insulated.

Nuisance Dust Collection Baghouses

IAC provided a total of 31 dust handling and nuisance dust filters on the project. Each had 8 ft. long bags. All were designed with 70 degree hoppers and were factory insulated to promote discharge of material, avoiding condensation effects due to dramatic shifts in the nighttime and daytime desert temperatures.

Stacks and Custom Steel Fabrication

IAC supplied both the raw mill/kiln exhaust stack and the clinker cooler baghouse exhaust stack. Both were equipped with multiple access levels to allow ease of maintenance of the continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) and for safety during stack testing. The two stacks were 2 meters in diameter and 65 meters tall.
During the course of the project, IAC provided over 1000 tons of steel in the form of stacks, access stair towers, and structural supports for the filters, cyclones, ductwork and stacks. All of the nuisance and dust control baghouses were shipped from the factory pre-piped, prewired and insulated. Process baghouses were field insulated, plumbed and wired under IAC supervision.

Drake Cement's Environmental Citizenship

With their state-of-the-art cement plant near Paulden , Arizona , and their vertically integrated ready mix position in Arizona and southern Nevada , Drake Cement is positioned to provide a wide variety of solutions to the cement and concrete industries. IAC is proud to have provided air pollution control equipment to satisfy Drake's environmental responsibility and commitment to being a good neighbor and corporate citizen.

Integrating Biomass Drying to Produce Alternative Fuel and Raw Material (AFR) Sources for Cement Production Facilities

There are signs that in the future there will be a need for most of the cement clinker production in North America, indeed throughout the world, to generate a portion of their output from renewable sources, of which biomass is a key component. This will allow plants to work towards CO2 neutrality and the establishment of a "greener" footprint.
Potential biomass sources include wood waste, construction & demolition (C&D) wastes, and some carbon rich industrial and agricultural byproducts or waste streams which contain significant moisture such as pulp and paper mill sludges.
Several cement producers have expressed an interest in securing local renewable sources of biomass for their AFR and have requested IAC's assistance in providing design services and equipment to meet these needs.
Industrial Accessories Company is helping cement manufacturers to identify ways in which a biomass drying system can be integrated into their plants to utilize the wasted energy from their processes, specifically their preheaters. IAC is able to incorporate its airto- air heat exchanger technology if required to utilize preheater waste heat while limiting corrosion and erosion from these gases in its biomass drying systems.

IAC Offers Assistance to Cement Producers

For cement producers wishing to install new, retrofit or upgrades to existing air pollution control equipment, sorbent injection or material handling systems, or are interested in determining if biomass, particularly wet biomass, can become one of their alternative fuels and raw materials - IAC is ready to assist. Continuous Emission Monitoring System wikipedia or our site.

Compressed Air Dryer Manufacturers for Assuring Optimal Air Quality

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As industries grew and expanded all over, these brought many new problems. Among them the problem of air pollution is very grave. Air being an important utility, after water and electricity, is consistently explored for power. In compressed form, this becomes the most safest and economical source of energy.
The power derived from compressed air is utilized for many things. It is found highly useful for remote areas without any power grids and that are under high fire risks or electrical hazards. It is used for operating a variety of pneumatics tools and control systems. Compressed Air Dryer Manufacturers provide a wide range of dryers with latest air treatment technology. This innovative is range widely appreciated for its precision design and technology. Hence it finds extensive usage in numerous industry and domestic.
It is primarily offered in four types that include Refrigerated, Deliquescent, Desiccant and Membrane dryers. Refrigerated types are specially designed for installations where temperature of the pipeline does not go below 35°F. While the deliquescent range is typically a pressure vessel filled with a hygroscopic desiccant. Its performance varies according to the inlet air temperature. The perfect design of the product can be used for both outdoor as well as indoor air line. Another known range of Desiccant dryers are used for obtaining clean, dry volume in pneumatic systems or storage tanks. And the last but not least, Membrane type is used as dehumidification membranes in many pneumatics systems.
The environmental design of the products perfectly balances our Eco-system. These products are made with carefully chosen components and cutting edge technology as per Industry norms for quality air supply into the systems. The entire product design is appreciated for its unique air treatment features. These are highly efficient in removing oil, dust and water particles from compressed atmospheric air.
This way these are capable of meeting any air treatment requirement in the dynamic and competitive infrastructure market. These are made to enhance system performance offering corrosion free operation. As such, industries get low maintenance and energy efficient mechanisms for quality air supply in to the systems. Indeed, these products have revolutionized air filtration technology worldwide.
Globe-instruments.com offer competent and cost-effective products in industry specific standards that perfectly suit the needs of customers everywhere. Clients can obtain these products either from the market as well as online. Many supply companies provide wider selection at economic prices for customers online. These fully tested products operate well even at extreme temperatures and pressure. Due to these reasons, these equipments are manufactured in bulk quantity for critical laboratory as well as industrial based applications such as pneumatic automation, nitrogen replacement, infrared spectroscopy, lasers, continuous emissions monitoring and many more.

Environmental Monitoring Solutions, EMS, environment, business, environmental monitoring

Use an Environmental consultancy for effective water monitoring solutions
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A professional Environmental consultancy is vastly experienced in this specialist area and they regularly undertake projects that require trade effluent monitoring, flow and load surveys or water quality services.  Individual projects are undertaken by an Environmental consultancy on behalf of their clients, whatever they might entail. They could require remote monitoring solutions or need equipment installing to effectively monitor the flows of water in rivers, streams or other channels.
Whenever there's a need for effective environmental monitoring the Environmental consultancy delivers a steadfast service whatever the aquatic requirement might be. They offer specialized installation of the latest equipment used for environmental monitoring purposes.
Need effective trade effluent monitoring?
Contact the Environmental consultancy who will design, install and commission an appropriate system for your particular site.  They have undertaken numerous projects in the past and worked with countless clients that have relied upon the trade effluent systems supplied and fitted by the experienced Environmental consultancy.
A professional Environmental consultancy uses reliable equipment that can withstand operating within the harshest environments.  It has to be reliable to deliver proven results and the Environmental consultancy only uses the latest, durable equipment.
All types of trade effluent monitoring are undertaken by an Environmental consultancy who works with a variety of large organizations. From bakers to power stations, pork pie manufacturers to drinks distributors, there's a long list of clients that rely on the services of an Environmental consultancy.
What other services does an Environmental consultancy provide?
As well as water monitoring solutions the Environmental consultancy also offers an air monitoring solution to their clients.  This could be as part of long-term contracts for clients whether they required continuous emissions monitoring or dust air surveys, whether they're temporary or permanent site installations.
Noise and vibration is another key area that the Environmental consultancy works within, they provide services for customers that include the monitoring of noise of vibration where it could be a problem to the surrounding area.
If you require air monitoring services contact an Environmental consultancy who'll deliver the appropriate solution to your individual needs. Buy Continuous Emission Monitoring System at Globe-instruments.com

8/16/2016

ONH analyzer from Xi'an Yima Opto-electrical Technology Co., Ltd.

The market report, titled ONH Analyzers Market 2016, is an analytical research done by QY Market Research study based on the ONH Analyzers market, which analyzes the competitive framework of the ONH Analyzers industry worldwide. This report “Worldwide ONH Analyzers Market 2016” build by the usage of efficient methodical tools such SWOT analysis, the ONH Analyzers industrial 2016 study offers a comprehensive evaluation worldwide ONH Analyzers market.Global ONH Analyzers Market
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The ONH Analyzers market size is estimated in terms of revenue (US$) and production volume in this report. Whereas the ONH Analyzers market key segments and the geographical distribution across the globe is also deeply analyzed. Various ONH Analyzers market dynamics such as growth drivers, restrictions, and the future prospects of each segment have been discussed in detail. Based on that, the ONH Analyzers market report determines the future status of the market globally.
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About ONH Analyzer Industry

Questa review si propone di descrivere le differenti tecnologie attualmente disponibili nella pratica clinica, per l’imaging del disco ottico e dello strato delle fibre nervose retiniche (RNFL).
L’importanza dei cambiamenti morfologici del disco ottico nella diagnosi e nel management del glaucoma è ben conosciuta. I metodi convenzionali di esame includono l’osservazione dellla papilla ottica e l’analisi soggettiva di una stereofoto da parte di un oftalmologo esperto. Recentemente sono stati introdotti nuovi metodi di valutazione del disco ottico: Confocal laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO), Scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) e Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Individuando i punti di forza ed i limiti di queste tecnologie, è possibile valutare meglio il loro uso nella pratica clinica.

INTRODUZIONE

Il glaucoma è una patologia  caratterizzata da aumento della pressione oculare che determina, se non curato,la progressiva  sofferenza e morte delle cellule gangliari della retina.
La diagnosi di glaucoma e la progressione della malattia si basano sull’ identificazione delle  anomalie e dei cambiamenti della testa del nervo ottico e dello strato delle fibre nervose retiniche (RNFL). Tali cambiamenti strutturali  precedeno le variazioni che possono essere rilevate all’esame del campo visivo.
Sebbene l’esame clinico del disco ottico sia indispensabile per la diagnosi del glaucoma, l’imaging della testa del nervo ottico e delle RNFL è raccomandato per una documentazione oggettiva del danno glaucomatoso.
Una varietà di nuove tecniche come l’HRT, il GDx e l’OCT sono stati creati e sviluppati per la valutazione del nervo ottico e dell’ RNFL.
Queste tecnologie di imaging forniscono misurazioni oggettive che sono altamente riproducibili e mostrano un grande accordo con le valutazioni cliniche.
Tuttavia poiché l’ affidabilità diagnostica di queste tecniche di imaging non è sufficientemente alta, la valutazione del disco ottico tramite stereofoto da parte di personale esperto, rimane ancor oggi il gold standard per la diagnosi di glaucoma.
Nonostante ciò lo scopo di questo articolo è di valutare il ruolo delle tecniche di imaging nella diagnosi di glaucoma.

SCANNING LASER POLARIMETRY (GDX)

Il GDx (GDx Nerve Fiber Analyzer; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, USA), è utile per quantificare lo spessore delle fibre nervose retiniche peripapillari, il cui assottigliamento è dovuto alla perdita di cellule ganglionari retiniche e dei loro assoni. Il principio del GDx è basato sulla misurazione di un ritardo di fase nel backscattering della luce che passa attraverso un’area birifrangente di RNFL. Sebbene il ritardo sia considerato proporzionale allo spessore dell’RNFL, si possono avere artefatti da parte di altri tessuti oculari, in particolare della cornea, che interferiscono con una valutazione accurata dello spessore. Al fine di ridurre gli artefatti e per una migliore compensazione della birifrangenza corneale,  è stato sviluppato il GDx with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC), che ha una migliore abilità diagnostica rispetto al GDx with fixed corneal compensation (GDx FCC).  Nonostante ciò si possono verificare interferenze con altre strutture sub retiniche e l’immagine prodotta dale GDx VCC può mostrare un atipico ritardo di pattern. Il nuovo Enhanced Corneal Compensation (GDx ECC) è stato recentemente introdotto per migliorare il signal-to-noise  ed eliminare gli artefatti associati ad ARP. Confrontato con il GDx VCC, il GDx ECC ha dimostrato una più alta accuratezza diagnostica ed una migliore relationship struttura-funzione.
Un recente articolo di Medeiros, Vizzeri et al. Ha dimostrato che l’imaging dello strato delle fibre nervose retiniche mediante GDx VCC è superiore alla valutazione topografica del disco ottico mediante HRT nel rilevamento del danno precoce in pazienti con glaucoma sospetto. SLP-VCC e CSLO mostrano una simile relationship con la Perimetria Automatica Standard (SAP).

CONFOCAL SCANNING LASER OPHTHALMOSCOPE (CSLO)

CSLO è una tecnica usata per  fornire una mappa topografica della superficie retinica e, in particolare, della testa del nervo ottico (ONH), oltre a dare una stima dello spessore dell’RNFL attorno alla testa del nervo ottico. L’ultimo CSLO è l’HRT 3 (Heidelberg Engineering). In breve, un’immagine topografica tridimensionale è costruita a partire da piani assiali multifocali attorno alla papilla ottica. Una media di tre scansioni consecutive è ottenuta per formare una singola immagine per l’analisi. Un esaminatore esperto deve tracciare i margini del disco ottico sull’immagine topografica ottenuta. Una volta ottenuta la countur line, il software calcola automaticamente tutte le misure del disco ottico.
Il Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) è stato sviluppato per migliorare l’accuratezza diagnostica dell’HRT 2. Questo algoritmo stima la rima neuroretitica globale ed in 6 settori e li compara con un database normale.
L’HRT 3 software utilizza un’analisi automatica per la valutazione del danno glaucomatoso, il glaucoma probabilità score (GPS), traccia una contour line del margine del disco ottico indipendente dall’operatore. E’ basato su modelli tridimensionali di immagini topografiche complete, che includono il disco ottico e le RNFL.
L’analisi del cup disc comprende tre misure: la dimensione, la profondità e la rima.
I parametri che vengono analizzati per le RNFL sono il raggio di curvatura verticale e orizzontale.
Un recente studio di Rao Hl, Babu GJ dimostra che la capacità diagnostica dell’HRT2 MRA è simile all’HRT 3 MRA; il GPS è più sensibile ma meno specifico del MRA nella diagnostica del glaucoma.

OCT : TOMOGRAFIA A COERENZA OTTICA

L’ OCT è una tecnica di imaging non invasiva utilizzata negli ultimi anni.
Viene sfrutta il principio dell’interferometria dell’alta frequenza e echi bassi, per valutare lo spessore
del tessuto.
L’OCT time domain con lo STRATUS OCT di terza generazione (Carl Zeiss Meditech) è stato il primo ad essere utilizzato per la diagnosi e ricerca del glaucoma.
La tecnologia di Fourier -domain recentemente sviluppata (conosciuta come Spectral-domain OCT) esegue 40.000 scan al secondo con una risoluzione di 3-6 ùm rispetto all’OCT time-domain che ha una risoluzione di 10-15 ùm. Questa tecnologia ha un esecuzione più semplice , ha una migliore abilità diagnostica nel rilevamento dei danni precoci causati dal glaucoma rispetto al time-domain OCT.
L’OCT può essere utilizzato per lo studio della testa del nervo ottico, dello strato delle fibre nervose retiniche peripapillari e della regione maculare.

RUOLO DELLE TECNICHE DI IMAGING

L’uso delle tecniche di imaging è diventato di uso routinario nella pratica clinica mondiale.
L’HRT, IL Gdx, L’OCT forniscono misure quantitative ed oggettive che sono altamente riproducibili.
Molti studi sono stati pubblicati riguardo l’alta riproducibilità di queste tecniche e del loro accordo con le valutazioni cliniche.
Le tecniche di imaging permettono al clinico di valutare oggettivamente lo strato delle fibre nervose retiniche peripapillari che, a differenza del disco ottico, non possono essere visualizzate e misurate facilmente. Si è dimostrato che la variazione dello spessore delle fibre nervose retiniche peripapillari avviene precocemente in corso di glaucoma.
Inoltre le tecniche di imaging forniscono un utile mezzo per quantificare le dimensioni del disco ottico. Gli occhi affetti da ipertensione oculare che presentano anormalità all’HRT e uno spessore ridotto del RNFL misurato con l’OCT e il GDx presentano un rischio aumentato di sviluppare un glaucoma ad angolo aperto (POAG). Si rileva comunque che l’evoluzione delle tecnologie di imaging hanno un effetto negativo sugli studi longitudinali che cercano di dimostrare l’utilità dell’uso di queste tecniche per la rilevazione della progressione del glaucoma.
A tutt’oggi ci sono evidenze che le tecniche di imaging possano assistere il medico nella valutazione della progressione del glaucoma.
L’imaging può anche produrre una falsa identificazione della diagnosi del glaucoma e della sua progressione. La qualità delle immagini può essere influenzata dalla opacità dei mezzi diottrici, dal movimento oculare, dal diametro della pupilla, dalla miopia e dalle variabili dipendenti dall strumento.
Perciò le informazioni ottenute dagli strumenti d’imaging dovrebbero essere considerate complementari alla altre valutazioni cliniche . Quindi la diagnosi di glaucoma non può essere assolutamente basata sull’esclusivo uso di queste tecniche.

TECNOLOGIE FUTURE

Un OCT di nuova generazione è l’OCT Swept-Source, che può migliorare la velocità di acquisizione delle immagini e la sensibilità. Un’altra tecnologia che inizia a suscitare interesse è l’OCT Polarization-Sensitive che ha dimostrato di fornire uno più specifico contrasto tessutale.

CONCLUSIONI

Premesso che lo studio del disco ottico tramite le stereofotografie rimane il gold standard per la valutazione del danno strutturale provocato dal glaucoma, le moderne tecnologie di imaging forniscono un contributo significativo nella diagnosi e nel follow up del galucoma.

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